Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Adult, Career and Higher Education

Major Professor

Waynne B. James, Ed.D.

Committee Member

Rosemary B. Closson, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Jeffrey D. Kromrey, Ph.D.

Committee Member

William H. Young, Ed.D.


adult education, perceptual modality, learning patterns, Hispanic, MMPALT


Businesses and Human Resources professionals face the ongoing challenge of continuously upskilling and developing employees. Changes to processes or procedures, changes in technology, changes in job functions, and updates or changes to compliance laws or regulations are all reasons that employees must attend and complete employer-developed training. This study utilized the updated Multimodal Paired Associates Learning Test, version four (MMPALT-IV) instrument to determine perceptual learning styles and to determine if there exists a measureable difference in Latinos perceptual learning styles.

The purpose of this study was to measure the perceptual learning styles of Latino adults from Central and South America utilizing the MMPALT-IV. The study compared Latinos born in either Central or South American to Caucasians born in the United States. The variables that were examined included gender, age, place of birth, and education level.

A convenience sample of 40 adults living in the Tampa Bay area was used. Of that population, 20 individuals (10 females, 10 males) born in either Central or South America were participants of the study; each completing the seven subtests for the MMPALT-IV. Additionally, 20 Caucasian individuals (10 females, 10 males) born in the United States participated in the study as a comparison group and completed the same seven subtests for the MMPALT-IV.

The results of this study indicate that there were no differences in preferred perceptual modalities based on race/ethnicity and gender, with the exception of the Kinesthetic where Latinos performed significantly higher than Caucasians. The implications for this study are broad ranging and can be applied to the corporate learning environment or any place adults spend time learning new knowledge, skills, or abilities.