Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Curriculum and Instruction

Major Professor

William H. Young, III, Ed.D.

Committee Member

Donald Dellow, Ed.D.

Committee Member

Yi-Hsin Chen, Ph.D.

Committee Member

G. Douglas Letson, M.D.


female, development programs, leaders, barriers, academic medicine


Over the past 50 years, the demographics of medical school graduates in the United States has changed dramatically with the number of women (47%) almost equaling the number of men in 2014 (AAMC, 2014). However, the Association of American Medical Colleges (2014) reports that orthopaedic surgery has the lowest proportion of female residents, instructors, assistants, associate, and full professors of all the sub-specialties and little has changed in the past several decades.

Due to the healthcare reform and the changing needs of our society, it is importance to recruit, retain, and promote women into leadership positions. The purpose of this study is to ensure the success of women in orthopaedic surgery. A self-report survey was sent to all known women in orthopaedic surgery. The survey assessed perspectives of women in orthopaedic surgery in regards to organizational culture, leadership development, challenges, diversity, gender bias, recruitment, and retainment.

An examination of the data provides insights into areas of improvement and implications for institutional practice. The results indicated that although institutions are making progress, more advocacy for gender equality, pro-family policies, and employee retention is needed.