Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Psychological and Social Foundations

Major Professor

Jose M. Castillo, Ph.D.

Committee Member

George M. Batsche, Ed.D.

Committee Member

Roger Boothroyd, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Robert Dedrick, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Eun Sook Kim, Ph.D.


response to intervention, multilevel confirmatory factor analysis, implementation fidelity, data-based decision making


This study aimed to provide evidence of reliability and validity for the 42-item Perceptions of Practices Survey. The scale was designed to assess educators’ perceptions of the extent to which their schools were implementing multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS) practices. The survey was initially given as part of a larger evaluation project of a 3-year, statewide initiative designed to evaluate MTSS implementation. Elementary educators (Level-1 n = 2,109, Level-2 n = 62) completed the survey in September/October of 2007, September/October of 2008 (Level-1 n = 1,940, Level-2 n = 61), and January/February of 2010 (Level-1 n = 2,058, Level-2 n = 60). Multilevel exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis procedures were used to examine the construct validity and reliability of the instrument. Results supported a correlated four-factor model: Tiers I & II Problem Solving, Tier III Problem Identification, Tier III Problem Analysis & Intervention Procedures, and Tier III Evaluation of Response to Intervention. Composite reliability estimates for all factors across the three years approximated or exceeded .84. Additionally, relationships were found between the Perceptions of Practices Survey factors and another measure of MTSS implementation, the Tiers I & II Critical Components Checklist. Implications for future research regarding the psychometric properties of the survey and for its use in schools are discussed.