Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)

Degree Granting Department

Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Raymond Miltenberger, Ph.D., BCBA

Committee Member

Timothy Weil, Ph.D., BCBA

Committee Member

Kimberly Crosland, Ph.D., BCBA

Committee Member

Sarah Bloom, Ph.D., BCBA


applied behavior analysis, relational frame theory, deictic relational responding, theory of mind


Approximately 1.7 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury each year in the United States. Perspective taking is a repertoire known to be severely affected following a traumatic brain injury. The ability to take the perspective of another greatly contributes to social interactions and involves a complex set of skills. A small number of studies have attempted to train perspective taking skills in populations lacking the ability, but none with individuals diagnosed with TBI. This study aimed to teach perspective taking skills to adults with TBI through established protocols which teach deictic relational frames. Three adult males with traumatic brain injuries were exposed to the deictic relational training protocol. Each participant was tested on traditional theory of mind tasks prior to and following mastery of deictic training. All three participants achieved mastery of the relational training protocol and showed some improvement on theory of mind tasks following training and at follow-up.