Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Measurement, Research, and Evaluation

Major Professor

Robert F. Dedrick, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Lilliana Rodriguez-Campos, Ph.D.

Committee Member

John Ferron, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Sara Kiefer, Ph.D.


convergent validity, fidelity, implementation, multi-level modeling, participant responsiveness, STEM


Students cannot benefit from what they do not experience. Multiple reasons exist for why an intervention may not be delivered as it was designed. In this era of educational accountability and limited dollars to go around, understanding how an intervention is delivered in the classroom is key to understanding program outcomes. In order to assess whether a program has been implemented as intended, an assessment of fidelity is needed. However assessing fidelity is complex given varying conceptual interpretations, which then fosters inconsistent application of methods to measure the construct. Additionally the methods for validating fidelity measures are still unclear. The current study evaluated the reliability and validity of the student Instructional Pedagogical (10 items) and Instructional Student Engagement (15 items) scores for use in assessing teachers' fidelity of implementation on the participant responsiveness component of fidelity. The sample consisted of over 5,000 responses from students and 242 teachers in Mathematics and Science across three school districts and 41 schools to an online fidelity of implementation questionnaire. Given that students were nested within teachers, the data structure was multilevel, which warranted that the psychometric analyses be conducted using a multilevel framework. Instructional Pedagogy is represented by 10 items that measure three factors. Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis was used to test a two-level model that had three factors at the student-level and three factors at the teacher-level. Instructional Student Engagement is represented by 15 items that measure four factors. Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis was used to test a two-level model that had four factors at the student-level and four factors at the teacher-level. The psychometric results of the student questionnaire assessing the student engagement components of fidelity were mixed. Support for the factorial validity of the multilevel student models was mixed, with model fit indicating that some of the measured variables did not load strongly on their respective factors and some of the factors lacked discriminant validity. Lastly, the correlations between students' and teachers' scores for both the observed and latent variables (ranging from -.15 to .72 in math; -.07 to .41 in science) displayed limited convergent validity.