Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Thomas H. Brandon, Ph.D.

Committee Member

David D. Drobes, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Jonathan Rottenberg, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kristen Salomon, Ph.D.


self-regulation, addiction, tobacco, negative reinforcement, task persistence


Based on a model that considers self-control (SC) to be a limited resource, research suggests that diminished SC resources increase the likelihood of smoking. Yet, no study has evaluated how smoking affects SC resources. This study used a randomized, 2 x 2 crossed factorial (SC depletion manipulation X smoking manipulation), between-subjects design to test the hypothesis that smoking restores depleted SC resources. To manipulate SC depletion, half of the 132 dependent smokers were instructed to suppress their emotional reaction to a brief video depicting environmental damage (i.e., Depletion), whereas the other half were instructed to “act natural” (i.e., No Depletion) during viewing. Half of the participants in each condition then smoked a cigarette, whereas the other half sat patiently, without smoking (i.e., Smoke vs. No Smoke). All participants then completed two behavioral measures of SC (Mirror Tracing Performance Task: MTPT; and breath-holding). As hypothesized, a disordinal interaction occurred between the Depletion and Smoking manipulations for duration of time spent on the MTPT. That is, participants in the depletion condition showed less persistence on the MTPT, unless they were permitted to smoke. There was no evidence for mediation of this effect from the influence of smoking on affect and/or urge. Thus, smoking appeared to restore depleted SC resources, independent of its effects on self-reported affect and urge. Findings suggest that restoration of SC resources may represent another form of negative reinforcement from smoking that may play a role in nicotine dependence, and could inform treatment development.