Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Psychological and Social Foundations

Major Professor

George Batsche, Ed.D

Committee Member

Michael Curtis, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kathy Bradley-Klug, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Constance Hines, Ph.D.


problem-solving model, response to intervention, systems change, educators, program evaluation


This study examined the relationships between pilot school status and Problem-Solving/Response to Intervention (PS/RtI) implementation, educator variables and PS/RtI implementation, and PS/RtI implementation and student and systemic outcomes following the final year of a 3-year PS/RtI implementation Project. School-Based Leadership Team (SBLT) members from 34 pilot schools in seven demonstration districts received training, as well as ongoing technical assistance and coaching, related to PS/RtI implementation. Data on educator's beliefs, perceptions of educational practices, and perceptions of PS/RtI skills; PS/RtI implementation; and student and systemic outcomes were collected from the 34 pilot schools, as well as 27 comparison schools. To examine the research questions in this study, multilevel models were conducted. Results of the analyses suggested that pilot school status appeared to be positively related to increases in PS/RtI implementation over time, while the educator variables did not significantly predict changes in PS/RtI implementation. Increases in PS/RtI implementation were not related to changes in DIBELS kindergarten PSF scores over time, but were negatively related to DIBELS kindergarten NWF scores over time. Finally, PS/RtI implementation was not significantly related to changes in office discipline referrals, but was significantly related to decreases in placements in special education over time. Potential explanations for the findings from this study and suggestions for future research are discussed.