Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Thomas Brandon, Ph.D.


Tobacco, Cigarettes, Urge, Mood, Reactivity


Consistent with classical conditioning theories of drug use, previous research has demonstrated that presenting smokers with either exteroceptive (e.g., pictures of cigarettes) or interoceptive (e.g., negative affect) cues results in increased motivation to smoke, as measured by urge and smoking topography (e.g., shorter latency to begin smoking). However, few studies have presented both types of cues to determine whether and how they might interact in the production of smoking motivation, and little research has focused on identifying potential moderators of cue reactivity. In a randomized 2 x 2 crossed factorial between-subjects design, the current study tested whether an interoceptive cue (anxiety induced via a speech preparation task) and an exteroceptive cue (exposure to a lit cigarette) interacted in the production of urge and behavioral reactivity and whether the personality trait of impulsivity moderated these effects. Results indicated main effects but no interactive effects for the two cue types on self-reported urge, no main or interactive effects on smoking topography, and no moderating effects of impulsivity. However, impulsivity was significantly correlated with urge to smoke, self-reported negative affect, and expectancies that smoking relieves negative affect, suggesting that this trait plays an important role in continued tobacco use. Implications for future research on the relationship between impulsivity and smoking behavior are discussed.