Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Biomedical Engineering

Major Professor

Rajiv Dubey, Ph.D.

Committee Member

William E. Lee, III, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Stephanie L. Carey, Ph.D.

Committee Member

M. Jason Highsmith, DPT


Socket-Residual Limb Interface, Motion Analysis, Validation, Reliability


It has been shown that the interface between the prosthetic socket and residual limb (S-RL) interface is an important factor in determining acceptance and outcomes of upper limb prostheses. [1] Among the most common complaint from amputees is that the prosthesis is uncomfortable due to developing skin irritation which is usually attributed to poor fit (Nielson 1990). In order to understand why skin irritations can and do occur it is imperative to examine the biomechanical properties of the S-RL interface. A primary reason behind the development of skin irritation is instability of the socket upon the residuum. Alley (2009) asserts that excess slip, axial rotation, and translation are the facets of instability that cause skin irritations due to friction and shear. Measuring the motion at the S-RL interface is not commonly done and therefore there is still no valid and reliable method to quantify the motion clinically.

A licensed prosthesis fabricated a transhumeral residual limb model to fit within a typical, harness suspended transhumeral prosthesis. A custom testing apparatus was built to hold the residual limb model and prosthesis for testing. Eight infrared markers were placed on the prosthesis and residual limb model: Two each respectively on the "wrist", elbow axis, socket, and on the residual limb model. The model consists of 3 rigid segments, the forearm, socket, and residual limb.

Pearson r correlations were done to see how strongly correlated the motion analysis calculated values were to the accepted values. All results were significant with a r < = .95 and p < .05.