Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Nancy Marie White, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Brent R. Weisman, Ph.D.

Committee Member

E. Christian Wells, Ph.D.


Historic Archaeology, Lower Creek Indians, Upper Creek Indians, Chattahoochee Brushed pottery, Seminole Indians


The Seminole Indians were Creek Indians from Georgia and Alabama who migrated to Florida for several reasons, including much conflict from not only other native groups but European pursuits. This thesis documents the early Creeks coming into northwest Florida, and thereby contributes to the larger research question of Seminole ethnogenesis. By compiling not only the confusing and often unclear historical documentation, but also the archaeological record, this thesis examines Creek/Seminole archaeological sites along the Apalachicola River and lower Chattahoochee River and matches them up with known historical towns to see where and when the Creek Indians were coming into Florida within this valley and when these groups were being referred to as Seminoles. Another question addressed is why the sites, either known historical or archaeological, all fall in the northern portion of the project area and on the west bank of the rivers. The significance of this research is to try to correlate archaeological sites with historic towns and get a better understanding of which native groups are being referred to as Seminole, when they came into Florida, where they were settling, and what the settlements look like archaeologically.