Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Physical Education and Exercise Science

Major Professor

Bill Campbell, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Candi Ashley, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Marcus Kilpatrick, Ph.D.


Body Fat Percentage, Lean Body Mass, Bench Press 1 RM, Leg Press 1 RM, Recovery Aid


Nutrition and recovery go hand in hand. After a resistance training workout, it is extremely important for athletes to rebuild and refuel their bodies with the proper nourishment to obtain maximal results. In doing so, they consume different recovery aids or ergogenic aids for gains in muscle mass, an aid in hydration, and a speedy recovery. Ergogenic aids can include many things (i.e., improved equipment, training program), but one of the most popular types of ergogenic aids is nutritional supplements such as protein, carbohydrates, creatine, and vitamins. A nutritional supplement that has recently grown in popularity is chocolate milk. Currently, no studies exist comparing the effects of fat-free chocolate milk and 2% chocolate milk on muscular strength and body composition in collegiate softball players. The purpose of this study will be to determine the effects of fat-free and 2% chocolate milk ingestion on body composition and muscular strength following eight weeks of resistance training. In a randomized (matched according to strength and bodyweight), double blind experimental design, 18 female, collegiate softball players (18.5 +_ .7 yrs; 65.7 +_ 1.8 inches; 156.2 +_ 21.6 lbs) ingested either fat-free chocolate milk or 2% chocolate milk immediately after resistance exercise workouts for an 8-week period. Dependent variables included body fat percentage, lean muscle mass, bench press 1RM, and leg press 1RM. Data was analyzed via a paired samples t-test (to detect difference across both groups over the 8-week training period) and an independent samples t-test (to detect differences between the groups) using SPSS for Windows 15.0. No statistically significant differences were found in bench press strength, leg press strength, body fat %, and lean body mass between the fat-free group and the 2% chocolate milk group. The major finding of this study is that there is no difference between fat-free chocolate milk and 2% chocolate milk in regards to body fat percentage, lean body mass, bench press maximal strength, and leg press maximal strength following an eight week exercise program where the chocolate milk was ingested immediately after each workout. However, there was a significant difference in both groups combined after the eight week training program. Therefore, from a practical sense, consumption of either fat-free chocolate milk or 2% chocolate milk in conjunction with a periodized resistance training program does improve exercise performance in regards to maximal strength as well as improvements in body fat percentage and lean body mass.