Graduation Year


Document Type

Ed. Specalist



Degree Granting Department

Instructional Technology

Major Professor

James White, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Frank Breit, Ph.D.

Committee Member

William Kealy, Ph.D.


culture, instructional technology, learners' diversity, cultural pluralism, distance learning, multiculturalism, cultural awareness, instructional system design


This study used content analysis to examine the coverage of cultural issues in the five phases of instructional design within ID/ISD textbooks published between 1993 and 2003. The results indicated that not all the ID/ISD textbooks examined in this study covered cultural issues. Among the textbooks that did cover cultural issues, none of them reached more than 10% coverage of the total pages of any one book. The phase of Analysis and the Other category received the highest amount of coverage in both the 53 books sample and 36 books sample; whereas the phase of Implementation received the least amount of coverage overall.

The findings from this study have implications for both students and faculty members. With respect to students, the coverage of cultural issues in the textbooks examined in this study might influence students' beliefs regarding cultural issues. It may indirectly influence future instructional designers' work effectiveness as well. With respect to faculty members, the amount of cultural issues coverage may reinforce faculty members to underrate the importance of cultural issues in the instructional design process. The study also provides several recommendations to textbook authors, faculty members and instructional designers regarding the amount of coverage of cultural issues within the ID/ISD textbooks.