High Normal Fasting Blood Glucose is Associated with Dementia in Chinese Elderly

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Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Mild cognitive impairment, Fasting blood glucose, Diabetes, Hippocampal volume, White matter hyperintensity, Magnetic resonance imaging, Cognitive performance, Vascular risk

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Background: Diabetes is a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. However, the association between high normal fasting blood glucose (FBG) and dementia has not been studied.

Methods: Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess the association of dementia and MCI with FBG in an age- and sex-matched sample of 32 dementia patients, 27 amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients, and 31 normal controls (NC). Analyses were repeated for those with normal FBG. Correlations between FBG and cognitive test scores were obtained.

Results: Controlling for age, gender, education, body mass index, Hachinski Ischemic Score, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) stroke, and normalized brain, hippocampal, and white matter hyperintensity MRI volumes; higher FBG was associated with dementia versus aMCI status (OR = 3.13; 95% CI, 1.28–7.69). This association remained (OR = 7.75; 95% CI, 1.10–55.56) when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal FBG. When dementia patients were compared with NC adjusting for age, gender, and education, a significant association with FBG also was seen (OR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.09–3.08), but it was lost when vascular covariates were added to the model. FBG was not associated with aMCI status versus NC. Higher FBG was correlated with poorer performance on the Trailmaking Test Part B (P = .003). The percentage of dementia patients with high normal FBG (90%) was significantly higher than that of aMCI patients with high normal FBG (32.9%) (χ2 = 13.9, P < .001).

Conclusions: Higher FBG was associated with dementia (vs. aMCI) independent of vascular risk factors and MRI indicators of vascular disease, and remained a significant risk factor when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal FBG. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that a high normal level of FBG may be a risk factor for dementia.

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Citation / Publisher Attribution

Alzheimer's & Dementia, v. 6, issue 6, p. 440-447