Inhibition of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 Attenuates the Toxicity of Carbon Tetrachloride

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PARP inhibitors, poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, hepatoprotection, necrosis, apoptosis

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Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is routinely used as a model compound for eliciting centrilobular hepatotoxicity. It can be bioactivated to the trichloromethyl radical, which causes extensive lipid peroxidation and ultimately cell death by necrosis. Overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) can rapidly reduce the levels of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and adenosine triphosphate and ultimately promote necrosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of PARP-1 could decrease CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, as measured by degree of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipid peroxidation, and oxidative DNA damage. For this purpose, male ICR mice were administered intraperitoneally a hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 with or without 6(5H)-phenanthridinone, a potent inhibitor of PARP-1. Animals treated with CCl4 exhibited extensive poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in centrilobular hepatocytes, elevated serum levels of LDH, and increased lipid peroxidation. In contrast, animals treated concomitantly with CCl4 and 6(5H)-phenanthridinone showed significantly lower levels of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, serum LDH, and lipid peroxidation. No changes were observed in the levels of oxidative DNA damage regardless of treatment. These results demonstrated that the hepatotoxicity of CCl4 is dependent on the overactivation of PARP-1 and that inhibition of this enzyme attenuates the hepatotoxicity of CCl4.

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Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, v. 26, issue 6, p. 883-889