Document Type


Publication Date



Cyber bullying, Self-Control, Differential Association, Criminological Theory

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


A sample of 318 students from two Iranian universities was employed to conduct a test of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s self-control theory and elements of Akers’ social learning theory. Specifically, we sought to determine whether these theories are capable of explaining the decision to cyber bully members and fans of rival sports teams. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze these data. Findings suggest that individuals with low levels of self-control are more likely to engage in cyber bullying perpetration. Similarly, those who associate with delinquent peers are more likely to engage in cyber bullying perpetration. Additionally, we found that ineffective parenting has an indirect effect on cyber bullying perpetration through its direct effect on self-control and differential association. Lastly, we found that self-control and differential association interact to more fully explain cyber bullying perpetration. Theoretical implications are discussed.

Rights Information

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License.

Was this content written or created while at USF?


Citation / Publisher Attribution

International Journal of Cyber Criminology, v. 12, issue 2, p. 362-375