Protein Kinase C-ζ Stimulates Colorectal Cancer Cell Carcinogenesis via PKC-ζ/Rac1/Pak1/β-Catenin Signaling Cascade

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CRC, ζ-StatI, CA-I, PKC-ζ, PKC-ι, Rac1

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in the world and death from CRC accounts for 8% of all cancer deaths both in men and women in the United States. CRC is life-threatening disease due to therapy resistant cancerous cells. The exact mechanisms of cell growth, survival, metastasis and inter & intracellular signaling pathways involved in CRC is still a significant challenge. Hence, investigating the signaling pathways that lead to colon carcinogenesis may give insight into the therapeutic target. In this study, the role of atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) on CRC was investigated by using two inhibitors of that protein class: 1) ζ-Stat (8-hydroxynaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid) is a specific inhibitor of PKC-ζ and 2) ICA-I 5-amino-1-(2,3-dihydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl)cyclopentyl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide) is a specific inhibitor of PKC-ι. The cell lines tested were CCD18CO normal colon epithelial and LOVO metastatic CRC cells. The inhibition of aPKCs did not bring any significant toxicity on CCD18CO normal colon cell line. Although PKC-ι is an oncogene in many cancers, we found the overexpression of PKC-ζ and its direct association with Rac1. Our findings suggest that the PKC-ζ may be responsible for the abnormal growth, proliferation, and migration of metastatic LOVO colon cancer cells via PKC-ζ/Rac1/Pak1/β-Catenin pathway. These results suggest the possibility of utilizing PKC-ζ inhibitor to block CRC cells growth, proliferation, and metastasis.

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Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, v. 1865, issue 4, p. 650-664